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Landscape/Environment Tut


Okay so i got a few notes on how i go about Environments/Landscapes…so i’ll share a method thats easy to work with….bare with me its been a little while since ive drawn them Lol


First thing you want to start of with in your gradient background…use what ever is your…

3,412 notes

25 Steps To Edit The Unmerciful Suck Out Of Your Story


Chuck Wendig on editing. A good read. NSFW for language, if you care.

1,280 notes

Body Language in writing


How many times has someone rammed the phrase “Show, don’t tell” down your throat without actually offering you any help as to how you could do that?

It must have happened to me about eight. million. times. Literally.

Ok so not literally… but the point stands.

Showing, rather than telling, is quite easy in first person; all you have to do is relay information and facts e.g

Rather than saying

"I was ill. I felt so sick."

You say

"My head was thumping and, as I tried to concentrate on the lecture, a bead of cold sweat worked its way down my back. I suppressed a cough, cracking my dry, itchy throat painfully."

However in third person it can be more difficult, mainly because the reader has no direct access to the characters thoughts and innermost feelings. It can be done, though.

Body language is very important to this and can really help to make a point well. In the most basic sense it gives your character life as, honestly, no one stays still as a mannequin through a whole conversation. Or, if they do, its a suspicious way of acting and should be noted. Of course it can also say alot more about your character than they’d like!

The example of Anxiety;

Anxiety, on a personal level (that is to say on the inside), causes feelings of sickness, nervousness, even fear in extreme cases but, while anxiety attacks are pretty obvious, the physical symptoms can be surprisingly subtle and complex. 

The first this to remember is peoples ‘tells’ will show something about them too: a young, vain man might smooth his hair, check for dirt under his nails etc. A woman might repeatedly check her make-up, smooth her dress and apply lipgloss/stick while someone who’s seen violence and known ambushes (a soldier or police officer, for example) might take to scrutinizing those around them.

for example;


"The anxiety was crippling him."


"The air was oppressive and, as Hunters stomach churned, it pressed on him; crushing his shaking throat beneath the boot of reality. He was trapped. Trapped in here with all these staring goons…"

The example of a liar;

When someone is lying they will, if they’re smart, try their hardest to act normally though the result will, usually, appear contrived. Unless they have no moral compass or are trained to lie with skill (or have a lot of practice).


" ‘Of course I love you.’ She lied smoothly."


"She blinked quickly, eyes darting from his face to her hands, 

'Of course I love you, Don….” She smiled and laughed, a high, panicked sound, 'How could you doubt me?'”

The example of sexual arousal;

Hard nipples or tingling nether regions are not body language. Keep in mind that, ideally, your reader should know nothing, or little, more than what characters do. When people are aroused their pupils dilate, their heart rate and body heat rises: this is universal but the way they display this changes from person to person. Some may lean forward, lick their lips, touch their neck or hair, push their chest out (women), splay their legs (men) but it all says something!


"Gary wanted him so badly; Rob was perfect. Sexy as hell and confident too."


"Gary swallowed and let his eyes flicked quickly over Robs lips and face; he was gorgeous but it was more than that. He leaned in and smiled as he recited a story about a childhood dog; it was the way he spoke and smiled. Gary rubbed his lips and squirmed in his seat a little; it was the way he flexed his hands and bit his lips.”

Obviously such examples are not comprehensive but they give an idea of how to move forward. Perhaps a useful thing to do, as a starting point, is to ask 

'what do I do when I feel like this/do this?'  

Then build upon your findings from there. Alternatively you can study those closest to you; watch what they do with their limbs and face when they say certain things.

2,992 notes



Exposure: The beginning of a great photoSill Level: Beginner
Getting a proper exposure is at the heart of all photography. I will now attempt to explain it in the simplest terms possible.
The Basics
You camera has a sensor.

This sensor collects light. Too much light and the image is bright or “overexposed.” Not enough light and your image is dark or “underexposed.”

There are 3 main elements that determine your exposure: aperture, shutter speed, and ISO. 
The aperture is just an adjustable hole inside your lens that lets in light.

The bigger the hole, the more light it can let in. The smaller the hole, the less light it can let in.
Aperture is measured in f-stops. This indicates the size of the hole. Though it seems backwards, a lower number means a bigger hole. A higher number means a smaller hole.

Your lens will be rated with its maximum aperture. So if it is a “17-55mm f/4 lens”—that means f/4 is the biggest hole it can make. Most lenses can go to f/22, which would be the smallest hole it can make.
A “fast lens” is one that has a very large maximum aperture. These lenses have an f-stop of 2.8 or lower. They are great for doing photography in low light. 
A large aperture (low f-stop number) can also give you shallow depth of field. This allows you to make your background blurry to better isolate your subjects. 

This is a very desirable thing for many photographers, so they try to get the fastest lens they can. 
Shutter Speed
Shutter speed is how long your sensor is exposed to light. Think of two sliding doors in front of the sensor. They open, let in light, and then close. A fast shutter speed lets in very little light. A slow shutter speed lets in a lot of light.
Shutter speed is measured in seconds. A fast shutter speed will be a fractional value, like 1/500th of a second. A slow shutter speed can be entire seconds.
Your camera might display fractions as just the bottom number in the fraction. So 1/500th would just show as 500. Whole seconds will have a double quotation mark after. So 5 seconds will appear as 5”. 
Faster shutter speeds let in less light, but will allow you to freeze action.

Slower shutter speeds let in more light, allowing you to take images in darker environments. With a long enough exposure, you can make night look like day. 

With slow shutter speeds you risk your image blurring due to your hands shaking the camera or movement of the subjects in your photos. So if you do a long exposure, you will almost certainly need a very still subject and a tripod.
There is a formula for keeping camera shake from blurring your photo. You just put 1 over the length of your lens. So if your lens is 50mm, you need a shutter speed of 1/50th or faster. Note: This will not stop blurring due to your subject moving. 
ISO is the amplification of your sensor. Similar to the volume knob on your radio, ISO amplifies the sensitivity of the sensor so you can increase your shutter speed or make your aperture smaller. It makes the light “louder.” However, this can come at a cost. The more you amplify the sensor, the more noise will show up in your image.

Some cameras can go to a very high ISO and have very little noise. These cameras are usually frickin’ expensive. As technology advances, cheaper cameras get better and have less noise at higher ISOs.
Getting the Balance
A proper exposure requires balancing aperture, shutter speed, and ISO to get your desired result.
To get shallow depth of field you’ll need a large aperture. So you make your f-stop the lowest number possible. But that lets in a lot of light, so you need a fast shutter speed to balance it out. 
To take a long exposure, your shutter speed will now let in a ton of light. To keep from overexposing you may need to make your aperture very small so the image does not overexpose. 
If it is darker and things are moving, you’ll need a fast shutter speed and a large aperture. But you can’t get a fast enough shutter speed to avoid blur. So you raise your ISO to amplify the light, allow you to get the proper exposure, and keep your subjects from blurring. Yes, it will cause your image to have some noise, but it is a worthy compromise to get the image you desire. 
Photography is often about making compromises. Sacrificing a little bit of quality in one area to create the intended effect with a proper exposure. Learning this balancing act can take years to truly master and in further posts I will go deeper into how to figure out how to get the best exposure possible for any situation. 
Exposure is the amount of light captured on your sensor or film
Not enough light = underexposed
Too much light = overexposed
Aperture is the hole in your lens that lets in different amounts of light
A large hole is a small f-stop
A small hole is a large f-stop
A large hole creates shallow depth of field (sharp subject, blurry background)
A shutter opens and closes to expose your sensor for different amounts of time
A fast shutter speed freezes motion, but lets in less light
A slow shutter speed lets in a lot of light, but can cause motion blur if subject is not still
ISO is the amplification of the sensor
HIGH ISO makes the image brighter, but creates noise
LOW ISO makes the image darker, but gives you the cleanest result
Photos by Froggie
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This is an example of the tutorial style posts you can find on the newly launched Frogman’s Light School. Eventually, we will cover a variety of topics at every skill level, from beginner to advanced, so keep checking back.
If you’ve been wanting to brush up on your photography skills, follow along!